Deploy Quarkus Applications with Databases in Kubernetes

Quarkus is a super-performant and cloud-native framework. Nowadays, I’m part of the Quarkus development team and I’ve written a lot of posts here about Quarkus, so let’s go directly to the topic!

Spites there are a lot of posts that explain how to build and deploy Quarkus applications in Kubernetes, there seems to be a lack of information about how to achieve this when our Quarkus applications depend on other services like databases. Let’s address this in this post.


  • Maven 3.5+
  • Java 11+
  • Have connected to a Kubernetes cluster using Kubectl
  • Have logged in to a Container registry like or Docker Hub.


Create Quarkus Application

Our use case is really simple and easy to understand: we’re going to implement a Quarkus application that stores and retrieves fruits from a database. For doing this, we’re going to use the following Quarkus extensions:

First of all, we’re going to create the Quarkus application from zero using the Quarkus Maven plugin:

mvn io.quarkus.platform:quarkus-maven-plugin:2.16.1.Final:create -Dextensions=resteasy-reactive-jackson,quarkus-hibernate-orm-rest-data-panache

After providing your group ID and the artefact name, enter to the generated folder.

As you selected the resteasy-reactive-jackson extension, the Hello resource is automatically created. So, if we run the application in DEV mode:

mvn quarkus:dev

And you call to the hello resource, you should see Hello from RESTEasy Reactive:

curl localhost:8080/hello
> Hello from RESTEasy Reactive

We’re now going to generate our first entity Fruit with only one column name (plus the id primary key column coming from PanacheEntity):

import javax.persistence.Entity;

import io.quarkus.hibernate.orm.panache.PanacheEntity;

public class Fruit extends PanacheEntity {
    public String name;

And we’re also going to expose the Fruit entity via REST endpoints. We will use the REST Data with Panache extension to do this.


public interface FruitResource extends PanacheEntityResource<Fruit, Long> {

The interface PanacheEntityResource needs the entity and the primary key column which is a Long (see PanacheEntity implementation).

Additionaly, let’s add some initial data by creating the SQL script import.sql in src/main/resources:

insert into Fruit(id, name) values (1, 'apple');
insert into Fruit(id, name) values (2, 'banana');

Now, if we run again our project using Quarkus dev mode, we’ll see this exception:

ERROR [] (main) Failed to start quarkus: java.lang.RuntimeException: io.quarkus.builder.BuildException: Build failure: Build failed due to errors
  [error]: Build step io.quarkus.hibernate.orm.deployment.HibernateOrmProcessor#configurationDescriptorBuilding threw an exception: io.quarkus.runtime.configuration.ConfigurationException: Model classes are defined for the default persistence unit, but no default datasource was found. The default EntityManagerFactory will not be created. To solve this, configure the default datasource. Refer to for guidance.

This is because we have not configured any JDBC driver yet. But Quarkus helps us by saying that we should go to ([] for further information. In this guide, we’ll see here that we have a lot of drivers available. Let’s use the jdbc-postgresql POSTGRESQL driver:

mvn quarkus:add-extension -Dextensions='jdbc-postgresql'

If we run again our project in DEV mode, we’ll see that our Fruit resource is generated with the initial data:

curl localhost:8080/fruit
> [{"id":1,"name":"apple"},{"id":2,"name":"banana"}]

It magically worked! Unfortunately, this only works in DEV mode :( Since you selected the JDBC postgresql driver, the DEV mode is automatically starting a postgresql instance using docker in your local machine and it’s also configuring your Quarkus application to use this Postgresql instance.

So, when running the application directly using the JAR file:

# Let's first build the app
mvn clean install
# And now, let's run it
java -jar target/quarkus-app/quarkus-run.jar 
# it will fail! :(
> Model classes are defined for the default persistence unit <default> but configured datasource <default> not found: the default EntityManagerFactory will not be created. To solve this, configure the default datasource. Refer to for guidance.

Therefore, you will eventually need to deal with how to setup Quarkus when running in Kubernetes. Let’s see how to do this in the following sections!

Note that, for demo purposes, we will also add the following two properties to import the initial data from the import.sql file and to drop/create the schema everytime our application starts:


Mapping Data Source properties

What DEV mode is doing internally, is to configure the following three properties after starting the Postgresql instance:

  • quarkus.datasource.jdbc.url
  • quarkus.datasource.username
  • quarkus.datasource.password

So, we need to somehow do the same when running our application in Kubernetes. The problem is that we might not know what the Postgresql JDBC URL, or username or password values are when building our application.

To allow us to provide these properties when installing the application instead of when building the application, we can map these properties to environmental properties:


If we run our application now, the application will still fail to start because these environmental properties do not exist yet which is expected. Let’s see how we can provide these environmental properties in Kubernetes.

Add Kubernetes extension

Beforehand, to deploy applications in Kubernetes, we need to write the Kubernetes resources like the Service, Ingress, Deployment resources. Luckily, Quarkus has the Kubernetes extension that will generate all these resources when building your application:

mvn quarkus:add-extension -Dextensions='kubernetes'
mvn clean install

After building the application, you will find the generated Kubernetes resources at target/kubernetes/kubernetes.yml.

But, as we saw in the previous section, we need to provide several environmental properties. We’re going to provide these properties using a ConfigMap resource that we’ll create and install before installing our application. To instruct our Quarkus application to read the environment properties from a ConfigMap resource, we need to add the following properties:


After building again our project, we’ll see that the generated Deployment resource in target/kubernetes/kubernetes.yml will contain the following container:

  - envFrom:
      - configMapRef:
          name: postgresql-datasource-props

Configure Container Image extension

We have built the Kubernetes resources to install our application, but we also need to build and push the container image of our application, so Kubernetes can pull this image to start our application. And again, Quarkus provides an easy way to do this by selecting one of the several container image extensions. Here, we’ll use the Container Image Docker extension:

mvn quarkus:add-extension -Dextensions='container-image-docker'

And let’s configure the final image that will be built using the following property:

# example:

And let’s push the built image into the registry using the property quarkus.container-image.push=true.

mvn clean install -Dquarkus.container-image.push=true

Now, the container image should be published in our container registry.

(Optional) Start the database when installing our application

There are many, many ways to install databases in Kubernetes: either via a database operator, or Helm, … If you’re already have a database instance ready to use, you can skip this step. Otherwise, let’s see how you can include the database deployment as part of the Quarkus application installation in Kubernetes.

We’re going to use the most basic setup to start a Postgresql instance. First, you need to create the file kubernetes.yml (or common.yml) in src/main/kubernetes folder. And then, add the following Deployment resource in this file:

apiVersion: apps/v1
kind: Deployment
  name: postgres
  replicas: 1
      service: postgres
        service: postgres
        - name: postgres
          image: postgres:15.1
            - containerPort: 5432
            - name: POSTGRES_DB
              value: example
            - name: POSTGRES_USER
              value: user
            - name: POSTGRES_PASSWORD
              value: pass
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
  name: postgres
  type: ClusterIP
    - port: 5432
    service: postgres

As you can see, we have provided the database name example, the user user and the password pass. So, we need to bind these values to the environment properties we have configured in this section.

Add the configMap with the datasource configuration

Let’s provide the Postgresql configuration using a ConfigMap resource named “postgresql-datasource-props”.

We’re going to add this ConfigMap resource in src/main/kubernetes/kubernetes.yml, so it’s aggregated to the generated target/kubernetes/kubernetes.yml and hence we can deploy everything in one go. But you can also create this ConfigMap resource later right before of installing the application.

apiVersion: v1
kind: ConfigMap
  name: postgresql-datasource-props
  POSTGRESQL_URL: "jdbc:postgresql://postgres:5432/example"

After building the project, you should see this ConfigMap resource within the target/kubernetes/kubernetes.yml.

Deploy the Quarkus application with database

Finally, let’s deploy our Quarkus application and also the database in one single step by doing:

Note that you should have been connected to Kubernetes and have selected a namespace where to deploy the application!

mvn clean install -Dquarkus.container-image.push=true -Dquarkus.kubernetes.deploy=true


We have seen how easy is to use Quarkus to deploy applications that need databases in Kubernetes. In future posts, I’m going to introduce the Quarkus Helm extension that make things much easier.

[ Containers, Quarkus ]